All sharpening stones can be placed into two categories. Either natural, having been quarried from the ground, or synthetic, having been been manufactured. Before the industrial age, all sharpening stones were natural by default. Simply picking up a piece of common sandstone and stroking it along a sword blade may have been enough to produce an edge. This would at least remove some of the worst nicks and gouges produced by the clash of steel.
And the proof is in the pudding. Try stopping at 1,000 and use the knife for awhile. If it goes dull too quickly, or doesn’t push cut to your satisfaction, then invest in a 4,000. Rinse and repeat. You can take it as far as you want. You can get an edge so sharp that the only thing it will cut without damage is air. But that’s a useless edge in the kitchen.
You need to adjust your fingers as you move the knife back and forth. Because sharpening takes place under your fingers, start with them at the tip and, as you pull the knife back toward you, release pressure completely and pause. Then, shift your fingers just a little down the blade toward the heel. This finger dance is critical and takes time getting used to.
But it's a different type of sharp, according to Joe Authbert, product development manager at ProCook. "What it does is add tiny little micro-serrations onto the edge of the blade." But fear not - your smart knife won't end up looking like a bread knife, as you'll be hard-pressed to spot the serrations. "If you looked at it under a microscope, on the cutting edge, there are these little lines that generate the sharpness, rather than a waterstone which is a smooth sharp edge," says Authbert. 

The smaller the angle between the blade and stone, the sharper the knife will be, but the less side force is needed to bend the edge over or chip it off. The angle between the blade and the stone is the edge angle – the angle from the vertical to one of the knife edges, and equals the angle at which the blade is held. The total angle from one side to the other is called the included angle – on a symmetric double-ground edge (a wedge shape), the angle from one edge to the other is thus twice the edge angle. Typical edge angles are about 20° (making the included angle 40° on a double-ground edge).[1] The edge angle for very sharp knives can be as little as 10 degrees (for a 20° included angle). Knives that require a tough edge (such as those that chop) may sharpen at 25° or more.
P.S. The coarse DMT stones can actually be used to keep your finer grit shapton stones flat! The DMT Lapping plate can't really be used for sharpening unlike the Extra Coarse stone, and it's a bit expensive, but consider this secondary use: It flattens the soles of old planes incredibly fast! Way better than sanding belts or sandpaper spray adhesive'd to a flat surface!

Overall I am very satisfied with this purchase, workmanship on product is very good. I have used it on several kitchen knifes and obtained a very sharp edge. But this does take quite a bit of time and effort on each knife. I did not give the product 5 stars because it is already showing a good deal of ware but still works great, and maybe my expectations are not sound. I would recommend this sharpening stone, but you must remember, using this type of stone you will send a good deal of time on each knife.
A shinkansen is a Japanese-style pull-through sharpener named after the famous bullet train. It features two sets of ceramic wheels set at the right angle for sharpening a Japanese blade, which takes out the guesswork of the waterstone. Simply hold the handle with your left hand, then saw back and forth gently through the coarser wheel to sharpen, before switching to the finer wheel to polish.
The basic concept of sharpening is simple – you're using an abrasive edge to remove metal – but the knife you buy may alter the method you should use. A general rule of thumb is that a waterstone can be used for both Japanese- and Western-style blades, but you should avoid pull-through sharpeners for Japanese knives (or any knife with very brittle blades).
I really appreciate that it comes with the rubber bases! I am beginning my own woodworking shop after graduating from woodworking school and having sharpening stones is important as a first step. These are not the highest quality stones out there, but they are great value - reasonably high quality for a good price. In addition to this 3000/8000 stone I have a 250/1000 stone from Lee Valley. Together with these I've sharpened all the plain-edged knives in the house and will soon be moving on to the chisels and plane blades after I put a hollow grind on them with the bench grinder.
Aluminum-Oxide oil stones are very popular man-made sharpening stones produced by an abrasives company called Norton and which are commonly called India Stones. Generally less expensive than Arkansas stones (aka Novaculite), these stones are graded coarse, medium, and fine and are designed for fast cutting. Yet, when the fine grit is used, they can also produce a relatively fine edge. Also, because India Oil Stones are both softer and coarser than Arkansas Stones, they are commonly used in conjunction with Novaculite to cut the initial edge bevels or, repair extremely dull or damaged edges before refining and polishing the bevel with an Arkansas Stone.

The composition of the stone affects the sharpness of the blade (a finer grain, usually, though not always, produces sharper blades), as does the composition of the blade (some metals take and keep an edge better than others). For example, Western kitchen knives are usually made of softer steel and take an edge angle of 20–22°, while East Asian kitchen knives are traditionally of harder steel and take an edge angle of 15–18°. The Western-style kitchen knives are generally in the range of 52–58 on the Rockwell scale, which denotes the relative hardness of a material.
Japanese whetstones (also called water stones) – both natural and synthetic – are known for their quick-working qualities, not only for Japanese blades, but also for their Western equivalents. The small particles that do the cutting are loosely bound together in the stone, and so during sharpening with the whetstone, the surface particles are quickly washed out, allowing new, sharp, particles to start working on the blade. These whetstones must be lubricated only with water! Never use oil or other lubricants!
The dual-sided whetstone is made from durable silicon carbide and has 400 grit on one side to sharpen the dullest blades and 1000 grit on the other side to create a nice smooth finish once the blade has been sharpened. The stone also forms a nice slurry that helps polish the blade for a superb shine. The stone is meant to be used with water, not oil and for best results, simply soak stone for 5-10 minutes before use, and lubricate with additional water as needed when sharpening.
Also natural stones have a random grit size that gives a long lasting edge. Basically the random grits create varying sizes of micro-serration in the blade that wear down at a different rate, therefore longer edge retention. Whether this is true or not we really like natural stone, especially for sharpening tradition single bevel Japanese knives. Use natural stones with water – it’s far cheaper than sake.
The word “Novaculite” is derived from the Latin word “novacula”, which means “razor stone” and is essentially a metamorphic, recrystallized, variety of Chert composed mostly of microcrystalline quartz that is found in the found in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma and in the Marathon Uplift of  Deposited in the Devonian Period and the early Mississippian Subperiod some 410 to 325 million years ago and subjected to uplift and folding during the Ouachita orogeny of the Atokan Epoch (early Pennsylvanian Subperiod), Novaculite is a very tough stone that is resistant to erosion and thus, the various layers of Novaculite stand out as ridges in the Ouachita Mountains. Thus, due to both its availability and its composition, it has been mined since ancient times for use as arrowheads and spear heads as well as in more modern times for use as sharpening stones.
We recommend that customers invest in Kamikoto’s Toishi Sharpening Whetstone to keep handcrafted knives sharp and ready to cut. The Toishi Sharpening Whetstone sits on a beautiful wooden bamboo stand and features two sides – one with a coarse grit to grind away any roughness, and the other with a fine grit that sharpens and polishes the edge. The finer the grit, the finer the edge on your knife. The sturdy wooden stand holds the whetstone safely in place so you can concentrate on gaining the sharpest edge possible.

Though not strictly a sharpening method using stones, the so called ‘scary sharp’ technique has become increasingly popular in recent years. At it’s simplest, a sheet of fine 400g abrasive is stuck to a dead flat piece of float glass and the blade, usually held in a honing guide, is sharpened on the surface. From that simple idea, the system has evolved so that it’s now much easier to apply the abrasive as a whole range of very fine, self-adhesive Hermes Aluminium Oxide papers are readily available. Lubrication is still required to float away the sharpening debris and either a fine machine oil, water or even WD40 (or similar) can be used.

Once you've sharpened one side, you need to flip over, but don't swap the hand gripping the blade – think of it a bit like going backhand with a tennis racket (see above). Lead with the heel this time, rather then with the blade, but repeat the process in three parts. After five strokes on each third of the blade, it's time to check your knife. It's not an exact science, and it all depends on how blunt your blade was to start with (mine was very blunt indeed). But if you sharpen fairly regularly, it should just take a few strokes. 
And the proof is in the pudding. Try stopping at 1,000 and use the knife for awhile. If it goes dull too quickly, or doesn’t push cut to your satisfaction, then invest in a 4,000. Rinse and repeat. You can take it as far as you want. You can get an edge so sharp that the only thing it will cut without damage is air. But that’s a useless edge in the kitchen.
Honing is edge refinement. Honing is the last step in sharpening but it should be the only step required when your knife, chisel or plane irons have lost their keen edge. So honing is what you do between sharpenings, meaning that in fact most of 'sharpening' is actually honing (or should be), since you can hone dozens of times between sharpenings so it is done far far more frequently.